Social determinants associated with self-reporting of symptoms and access to COVID-19 testing and diagnosis in the Plurinational State of Bolivia

Arias-Uriona et al.


To identify the prevalence of self-reporting of symptoms and access to testing and diagnosis of coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19), as well as its association with social determinants of health (SDH).


Cross-sectional study with a sample of 11 728 men and 12 612 women over the age of 17, based on the National Household Survey 2020. The dependent variables were the self-reporting of symptoms, access to testing, and a positive COVID-19 test. The independent variables were age, educational level, area of residence and geographic area, ethnicity, type of household, income per capita, occupation, and health insurance. Prevalences, bivariate associations, and binomial logistical regression models (odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI95%) were calculated.


Of the total individuals included, 16% reported symptoms, 10% a test, and 4.2% a positive COVID-19 test. Inequalities were observed in the reporting of COVID—19 symptoms, with a higher probability in women whose income had fallen (OR: 1.7; CI95%: 1.2–2.4) and unemployed persons (OR: 1.2; CI95%: 1.1–1.4 for men and OR: 1.3; CI95%: 1.5–1.5 for women). In contrast, with respect to access to diagnostic tests, the highest probability was observed in people with higher education (OR: 2.4; CI95%: 1.9–2.9 for men and OR: 2.7; CI95%: 2.2–3.4 for women), whose income was maintained (OR: 1.5; CI95%: 1.3–1.9 for men and OR: 1.7; CI95%: 1.4–2.0 for women) and those in the highest quartile of per capita household income (OR: 2.0; CI95%: 1.6–2.5 for men and OR: 1.6; CI95%: 1.3–2.0 for women). The probability of reporting symptoms and getting tested, and being diagnosed with COVID-19 increased with age for people with health insurance and those living in the llanos region; however, it decreased for residents of rural areas.


There are inequalities in access to testing and the reporting of COVID-19 symptoms.

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