24-hour sodium and potassium excretion in the Americas: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Valero-Morales et al.


To determine the 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretions in the Americas.


A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed seeking for studies conducted between 1990 and 2021 in adults living in any sovereign state of the Americas in Medline, Embase, Scopus, SciELO, and Lilacs. The search was first run on October 26th, 2020 and was updated on December 15th, 2021. Of 3 941 abstracts reviewed, 74 studies were included from 14 countries, 72 studies reporting urinary sodium (27 387 adults), and 42 studies reporting urinary potassium (19 610 adults) carried out between 1990 and 2020. Data were pooled using a random‐effects meta‐analysis model.


Mean excretion was 157.29 mmol/24h (95% CI, 151.42-163.16) for sodium and 57.69 mmol/24h (95% CI, 53.35-62.03) for potassium. When only women were considered, mean excretion was 135.81 mmol/24h (95% CI, 130.37-141.25) for sodium and 51.73 mmol/24h (95% CI, 48.77-54.70) for potassium. In men, mean excretion was 169.39 mmol/24h (95% CI, 162.14-176.64) for sodium and 62.67 mmol/24h (95% CI, 55.41- 69.93) for potassium. Mean sodium excretion was 150.09 mmol/24h (95% CI, 137.87-162.30) in the 1990s and 159.79 mmol/24h (95% CI, 151.63-167.95) in the 2010s. Mean potassium excretion was 58.64 mmol/24h (95% CI, 52.73-64.55) in the 1990s and 56.33 mmol/24/h (95% CI, 48.65-64.00) in the 2010s.


These findings suggest that sodium excretions are almost double the maximum level recommended by the World Health Organization and potassium excretions are 35% lower than the minimum requirement; therefore, major efforts to reduce sodium and to increase potassium intakes should be implemented.

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