Factors associated with COVID-19 length of hospitalization and mortality during four epidemic waves, March 2020–November 2021, Suriname

Gokoel et al.


To determine the sociodemographic risk factors associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality in Suriname.


This was a retrospective cohort study. All registered deaths from COVID-19 in Suriname (n=1 112) between March 13, 2020 and November 11, 2021 were included. Data were collected from medical records and included demographic variables and hospitalization duration of patients who died. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared tests, ANOVA models, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations between sociodemographic variables, length of hospitalization, and mortality during four epidemic waves.


The case fatality rate over the study period was 22 per 1 000 population. The first epidemic wave was from July to August 2020, the second from December 2020 to January 2021, the third from May to June 2021, and the fourth from August to September 2021. Significant differences were found in the number of deaths and hospitalization duration by wave (p<0.001). Patients were more likely to have a longer hospitalization during the first (OR 1.66; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.82) and third waves (OR 2.37; 95% CI: 1.71, 3.28) compared with the fourth wave. Significant differences in mortality were also seen between ethnicities by wave (p=0.010). Compared with the mixed and other group, people of Creole ethnicity (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.33, 5.29) and Tribal people (OR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.12, 7.02) were more likely to die during the fourth wave than the third wave.


Tailored interventions are needed for males, people of Creole descent, Tribal and Indigenous peoples, and people older than 65 years.

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