Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from inpatient and outpatient samples, Ecuador, 2018

Satán et al.


To compare the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from inpatient and outpatient samples in Ecuador.


A secondary analysis was done of data on bacteria isolated from inpatient and outpatient samples. Data were taken from the 2018 national antimicrobial resistance surveillance database of the National Reference Center for Antimicrobial Resistance. The variables included were: age, sex, inpatient versus outpatient setting, type of specimen, bacterial species identified, pattern of resistance to antibiotics, and geographic area.


Data from 57 305 bacterial isolates were included in the study: 48.8% were from hospitalized patients, 55.7% were from women, and 60.1% were from patients older than 45 years. Urine (42.9%) and blood (12.4%) were the most common clinical samples. Overall, 77.1% of bacterial isolates were gram-negative (83% and 71% in outpatients and inpatients, respectively). The most common gram-positive and gram-negative species were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Antimicrobial resistance levels were high (up to 80% for some antimicrobial drugs), and were higher in hospitalized patients compared with outpatients. A variety of carbapenemases were found to confer resistance to carbapenems (antibiotics of last resort) in gram-negative bacteria.


The study findings provide an important baseline on antimicrobial resistance in Ecuador. This will allow the strengthening of guidelines of the surveillance system, the creation of public policies for standardization of laboratory methodologies, the proper handling of information, and the development of empirical therapy guidelines based on local epidemiology.

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