To map the policies related to the prevention and control of antimicrobial resistance from a human health perspective in Brazil and systematize the historical course of these policies.
A scoping review was performed following Joana Briggs Institute and PRISMA guidelines. A literature search was performed in December 2020 in the LILACS, PubMed and EMBASE databases. The terms “antimicrobial resistance” AND “Brazil” as well as their synonyms were used. Using the same keywords, Brazilian government websites were searched for documents published until December 2021. Studies of all designs were included, with no language or date restrictions. Clinical documents, reviews and epidemiological studies that did not focus on antimicrobial resistance management policies in Brazil were excluded. Categories based on World Health Organization documents were used for data systematization and analysis.
In Brazil, policies related to antimicrobial resistance such as the National Immunization Program and hospital infection control programs can be traced back to before the creation of the Unified Health System. In the late 1990s and 2000s, the first specific policies on antimicrobial resistance (surveillance networks and programs) and education strategies were established; especially noteworthy is The National Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance in the Single Health Scope (PAN-BR) of 2018.
Despite the long history of policies related to antimicrobial resistance in Brazil, gaps were identified, particularly in monitoring the use of antimicrobials and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance. The PAN-BR, the first government document prepared from a One Health perspective, represents an important milestone.