Space-time heterogeneity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination indicators in children from Brazil

Moura et al.


To evaluate immunization coverage and dropout rates of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine across Brazilian regions. 


This ecological study employing a space-time approach used data from the National Immunization Program (PNI) and the Live Births Information System (SINASC). We estimated the annual variation (2014 to 2021) in immunization coverage and dropout rate of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in children aged 12 and 15 months in the 5 570 Brazilian municipalities. Statistical analysis was conducted for the municipalities contained in each Brazilian region using the space-time scan technique, considering the Poisson probabilistic model and the hypothesis that municipalities with lower immunization coverage or high dropout rates would form space-time clusters. 


From 2014 to 2021, 38.3% and 12.9% of municipalities achieved a coverage ≥ 95.0% in the first and second doses respectively; 53.6% of municipalities had a high dropout rate (20.0% to 49.9%) and 37.2% had a very high dropout rate. The Northeast region had primary clusters for low coverage of the first (2018 to 2021) and second vaccine doses (2020 to 2021) with higher relative risks (RR) compared to other primary clusters. The RR for high dropout rate was elevated in all Brazilian regions (1.57 to 26.23). 


In some Brazilian regions, the dropout rate has been high since 2014, signaling a risk of measles resurgence. In turn, space-time analysis indicated lower vaccination coverage in 2020, suggesting the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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