Prevalence of comorbidity tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus in Paraguay, 2016 and 2017

Céspedes et al.


To estimate the national and regional prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) co-morbidity and identify the factors associated with this co-morbidity in Paraguay.


Cross-sectional study in patients with TB notified in 2016 and 2017 and registered in the database of the National TB Control Program. The prevalence of self-reported DM was estimated in patients with TB. A multivariate binomial regression model was used to know the factors associated with TB-DM co-morbidity to
adjust the prevalence ratios (PR) according to standard errors by health region.


Between 2016 and 2017, 5 315 cases of TB were reported. The prevalence of TB-DM co-morbidity was 6.3% in 2016, 6.0% in 2017, and 6.2% in both years. It was highest in Itapua (9.2%), Alto Paraguay (8.0%), Alto Parana (7.5%), Central (7.4%) and Asuncion (7.2%). The median age of people with DM was higher than
that of those without DM (55 vs 33 years; P < 0.001). Being older than 45 years (RP = 18.3), history of hypertension (RP = 2.17), diagnostic baciloscopy +++ (RP 1.98), and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (RP 1.68) were associated with greater co-morbidity. A lower co-morbidity was associated with belonging to the indigenous population (RP = 0.26), human immunodeficiency virus infection (RP = 0.44), history of drug dependence (RP = 0.49), male sex (RP = 0.64), and extrapulmonary TB (RP = 0.75).


The prevalence of self-reported co-morbidity of TB-DM in Paraguay was 6.2% in 2016-2017 and varied between health regions. Age, sex, high bacillary burden at diagnosis and co-morbidity with hypertension and COPD were associated with higher co-morbidity. These findings will allow prioritizing population groups to increase screening performance, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of TB-DM co-morbidity in Paraguay.

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